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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Broccoli Export Seminar
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
Contact Details
Vegetable Growers Association of Victoria

Mail Box 111,
Melbourne Markets

542 Footscray Rd,
West Melbourne, VIC, 3003

Tel: 03 9687-4707
Fax: 03 9687-4723
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VG98093 Safe vegetable production

Until recently, food safety in fresh produce was primarily concerned with pesticide residues.

It was not commonly accepted that fresh produce could be associated with food borne disease outbreaks.

However, outbreaks of food bome disease linked to the consumption of vegetables and fruit in developed countries is becoming more common.

The number of documented fresh produce-related outbreaks in the USA more than doubled from between 1973 and 1987 to the period 1988 to 1991.

Bacterial diseases have been attributed to E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria, Shigella, Bacillus, Clostridium and Campylobacter.

Viruses and parasites have also been linked to produce-related disease outbreaks.

Consequently the fresh produce industry has had to deal with a lot of new issues revolving around a changing definition of food safety.

Many quality assurance systems have been introduced which encompass food safety to address the risks involved in production.

However, with this have come a lot of challenges. Uncertainty exists with regard to some of the technical aspects of on-farm food safety.

There has been much confusion and inconsistencies in the way systems have been implemented and audited because of a lack of information available on which to base these systems.

This project report address these issues.

Authors
Julia Behrsing
Francha Horlock
Robert Premier

Identification and quantification of
hazards and risks to human health in the vegetable industry - 2002
Download 134kb

Summary :

The major outcome has been the production of a national food safety guide that the vegetable industry can use as a reference tool.


A farmgate survey of vegetables for human pathogens was carried out as part of this project.

Whilst there are many studies published overseas looking at isolation of different human pathogens on whole fresh produce, this data cannot be found in Australia.

We analysed around 200 vegetable samples from 35 farms in Victoria for a number of human pathogens.

The vegetables chosen were salad types and include cos lettuce, salad mix, celery, cabbage and Dutch carrots.

Overall incidence of pathogens found on the vegetable samples was low with one positive for Salmonella victoria and one for Listeria monocytogenes.

Whilst it is preferable not to find such pathogens it is also encouraging that the numbers found were low, particularly when comparisons are made with overseas studies of this type.


The effectiveness of calcium hypochlorite on inactivation of E coli inoculated on fresh produce was investigated.

Different times of exposure and concentrations of chlorine were studied. Dipping was not effective at eliminating E. coli populations although it significantly reduced the E. coli counts compared to inoculated, undipped lettuce.

Dipping inoculated cos lettuce leaves into hypochlorite solutions containing 50 mg/L or greater free chlorine for times of 30 seconds or greater reduced E. coli cells by approximately 1.9 to 2.8 log10 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) from an initial population of approximately 6.8 log10 CFU/g.

Dipping lettuce in water alone reduced cell numbers by 1.7 log10 CFU/g.

Dipping inoculated broccoli florets into hypochlorite solution reduced E. coli cells by approximately 1.7 to 2.5 log10 CFU/g, depending on the time and concentration of the free chlorine in the wash water.

Dipping broccoli in water alone reduced cell numbers by 1.5 to 1.8 log10 CFU/g.

Dipping broccoli florets for 2 minutes in a 100 mg/L free chlorine solution at temperatures between 4 and 25°C reduced E. coli cells by approximately 2.4 log10 CFU/g.

No significant effect of temperature on the level of cell reduction was observed.


Water samples were collected from seven farms in three main growing areas of Victoria, Werribee, the Mornington Peninsula and East Gippsland.

Different water sources were looked at which included bore. dam. river and lake water.

All of the samples except for one fell within the current Australian water quality guidelines of 1000 faecal coliforms per 100 mL.

We found bore water to have much lower levels of faecal streptococci, faecal coliforms and E. coli than dam, river or channel water.

This is not that surprising since surface water could come from some distance and there may be less control over potential sources of contamination.

Most bore water samples had levels of faecal coliforms of less than 2 most probable number per 100mL (MPN/100mL), with the highest level being 14.

Channel/river water samples contained from less than 2 to 350 MPN/100mL.

Dam water had mainly between 5 to 540 MPN/100mL, with 2 samples containing 920 MPN/100mL faecal coliforms.

Consideration of this data resulted in a recommendation that soil on new land should contain less than 100 E. coli (CFU)/g.


Acknowledgments :

We would like to thank John Faragher, Bruce Tomkins and Scott Ledger for their contribution as members of the project management team for the Safe Vegetable Production publication.

As well as the industry team members and those who reviewed the guide, these people are listed in the guide.

In addition, John Faragher for his advice and contribution towards developing the strawberry industry food safety guide.

Peter Franz for his help with the statistical analysis, Janet Tregenza for her technical assistance with the farmgate survey,

Susan Pascoe for her assistance in collection and analysis of the soil samples and the Microbiological Diagnostics Unit for help received in setting up the methodology for the irrigation water analyses.

This project was commissioned by Horticulture Australia Limited with funds frrom the Vegetable R&D levy and the Victorian State Government..

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL's R&D activities.


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