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Hangzhou Foods
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Native Plants - Food Safety
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
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NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
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Parsley Disease Handbook
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Phytochemical composition of food
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Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
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Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
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Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
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VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
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VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
Contact Details
Vegetable Growers Association of Victoria

Mail Box 111,
Melbourne Markets

542 Footscray Rd,
West Melbourne, VIC, 3003

Tel: 03 9687-4707
Fax: 03 9687-4723
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VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum

Tasmania has an ideal environment in which to produce greenhouse vegetables.

Its cool summers favour the production of high quality produce.

When Tasmania was granted area freedom from Tobacco Blue Mould (TBM) in November 1996, it presented greenhouse growers with an opportunity to export tomatoes, capsicums and eggplants to Japan.

This three-year project investigated a range of greenhouse tomato, capsicum and eggplant cultivars and their production techniques.

The project also confirmed the New Zealand experience that Botrytis cinerea, which can be a major problem with these crops, can be controlled by managing the environment in greenhouses.

This work has generated knowledge that is a sound basis for decision-making by both existing greenhouse growers who wish to expand production and new entrants to the greenhouse vegetable industry.

Authors
Ray Hart Jason Dennis
Ali Salardini Geoff Heazlewood
Roger Orr

VG02020 Assessment of Tomato and Capsicum Cultivars and Production Techniques for Export to Japan and Taiwan and Demonstration of IPM for Botrytis cinerea for local and export crops - 2001
Download 373kb

Findings :

Eggplants Although only a preliminary evaluation was undertaken in tomato greenhouses, it was clear that eggplants would need more heat and specific environmental conditions for this crop to reach its potential for yield and quality.

Market enquires found that the likely export returns for this crop would not warrant the high production costs that would be necessary under Tasmanian conditions at this point in time.

Tomatoes A small domestic greenhouse tomato industry has operated in Tasmania for many years.

At present, there is a wide range of grower experience and levels of sophistication of greenhouse infrastructure, environmental control and production methods.

A local grower association and partner in this project, the TGTVGA, facilitates information exchange.

Export market investigations found that market-suitable cultivars would need to be grown by a number of growers to obtain economic volumes of best quality fruit.

In turn, the project partners assessed that more modern or upgraded greenhouses would be required by new or existing growers to produce export volumes.

Enquiries indicated that the likely export returns for this crop might be economic but at some risk because the Japanese market was well supplied and highly competitive.

For these reasons, the project partners considered that further cultivar and market assessment is required before growers make large-scale investments into greenhouse tomatoes for export.

Capsicums Evaluations of capsicums in the first year were limited. However, the export market investigations were significantly favourable for the project partners to direct the main project effort into this crop.

Although starting from a base of little practical experience, leasing a modern greenhouse specifically to grow this crop and contracting a specialist consultant enabled the project to produce a small commercial crop up to world class standard for yield and quality.

The small trial shipment of about 200 kg sent to Japan to coincide with Foodex 1999 confirmed the quality of the product.

Valuable experience was gained in testing the procedures required for packing and exporting capsicums.

Strict attention to all aspects of crop production was shown to be critical and this knowledge is now available to growers in the production guide developed from the project.

Some variations in the production methods in the third season highlighted the sensitivity of capsicums to timely and optimal management methods.

The project showed that, unlike tomatoes, capsicums must be grown with more management and cost inputs and with greater control over temperature and humidity.

This can only be achieved in modern greenhouses that have all the ancillary infrastructure needed to achieve this control.

Initial market intelligence suggested that capsicums were a major market opportunity for export to Japan.

However, an influx of capsicums from Korea in 2000 lowered prices and no fruit was exported in 2000. The Korean imports reduced prices enough to make export to Japan an uneconomic proposition.

However, the potential in the local and interstate markets appears to be promising for Tasmanian greenhouse capsicums.

On the completion of this project, a semi-commercial capsicum trial sponsored by Horticulture Australia and industry partners began to test lessons learned from this initial three-year study.

The opportunity exists to update initial findings as the results from this commercial trial come to hand.

As the main focus of the project shifted to capsicums in the second year, the production of a technical guide for this crop became a priority, especially as there was little local experience or expertise in this crop.

The use of a specialist consultant was considered the most significant factor in gaining the expert knowledge required.

The project partners believe the production guide, "Greenhouse Capsicums: A guide to growing export quality hydroponic greenhouse capsicums in Tasmania", has captured this knowledge in sufficient detail to allow new growers to confidently, and at minimal risk, grow this crop under Tasmanian conditions.

IPM control of Botrytis cinerea

With the failure of commercial support, a commercial-sized demonstration was considered too expensive.

However, a smaller trial of IPM control of Botrytis cinerea confirmed the NZ experience that controlling the greenhouse environment to avoid high humidity and associated surface wetness will control the disease.

A number of growers who adopted the environmental control measures achieved considerable success in limiting Botrytis cinerea infection in their greenhouses and reduced their use of fungicides.

IPM control measures are keenly sought and taken up by growers as they become more aware and concerned for their own health.

Growers see a distinct market benefit in supplying the growing demand for produce grown with less use of pesticides.

Recommendations :

This project has confirmed that a number of cultivars of tomatoes and capsicums can be grown in Tasmanian greenhouses to produce export quality fruit.

However, further evaluation will be needed for eggplants. Capsicums have the potential for the highest returns for high quality fruit.

To achieve this quality and the consequent economic returns, modern, automated and dedicated greenhouses using best practice management are needed.

The production guide developed from the project gives growers most of the knowledge needed to grow hydroponic greenhouse capsicums in Tasmania.

The project partners recommend that growers who are unfamiliar with hydroponic cropping should employ consultant agronomists who have experience with growing greenhouse capsicums.

Market intelligence varied over the course of this project. At the time of writing, the prospects for exporting capsicums to Asian markets were less favourable than they were at the beginning of the project.

However, interstate markets for high quality, well presented fruit has been found to be strong.

The project partners believe that the interstate markets should be evaluated further and that new cultivars should continue to be evaluated.

The demand in the Tasmanian market for high quality greenhouse capsicums also is increasing.

Both these markets could confidently be pursued, with the option to divert some produce into overseas markets when the demand becomes economic again.

Acknowledgements :

J. & A. Brandsema - Seedlings, capsicum greenhouse, maintenance, supply of water, nutrients, management of nutrients and environmental control.

Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research (TIAR) - provided "in kind" support to the project principally with plant nutrition advice during the project and collaboration in writing the nutritional topics in the guide.

Aurora Energy - contributed towards the heating bill for the capsicum house and for monitoring the energy input. Heating is one of the main expenses of hot house growing.

Air Liquide - gas and equipment for the capsicum demonstration house.

Amcor Fibre Packaging and Visyboard - packaging for trial marketing. R. and

A. Henderson - ULV Fogger, tomato demonstration site.

Hills Transplants - Seedlings.

C. Vercoe - Art work design for cartons.

Qantas and A.E.I. Pace Express Pty Ltd - Assistance with freight. R. Atkins, E. and A. Dykman, N. Mitsaksis and B. Laffer - Tomato demonstration sites.

Rijk Zwaan, Novartis, Agro-Tip and Hollander Imports - Seeds.

Serve-Ag and South Pacific Seeds - Seeds

R. Buttermore (Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery) - Bumblebee demonstrations.

Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment (DPIWE) provided "in kind" support to the project as project manager and with supply of administration overheads. The project funded one officer for three days a week.

Tasmanian Greenhouse Tomato and Vegetable Growers Association (TGTVGA) representing the interests of greenhouse vegetable growers provided funding and 'in kind' support.

Field Fresh Tasmania contributed financially towards the project and by 'in kind' support through its excellent marketing skills and contacts in Japan, Interstate and Overseas.

Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) was the major funding organisation, matching industry contributions dollar for dollar. Horticulture Australia was formerly known as the Horticultural Research and Development Corporation (HRDC).

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL�s R&D activities.


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