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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
Contact Details
Vegetable Growers Association of Victoria

Mail Box 111,
Melbourne Markets

542 Footscray Rd,
West Melbourne, VIC, 3003

Tel: 03 9687-4707
Fax: 03 9687-4723
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VG04015 Benchmarking water use

Vegetable production is intensive, often requiring large inputs of water and nutrients.

The value of crops is high, and water has traditionally been regarded as a small component of the total growing cost.

This is changing, as demand increases for this scarce resource, and water shortages occur in vegetable growing areas. The vegetable industry currently lags behind other horticultural sectors in the understanding of plant water needs and irrigation best practices.

Irrigation benchmarking involves the collection of onfarm information about irrigation practices, crop performance and water use efficiency (WUE).

Irrigation benchmarking is a proven tool for increasing WUE. It allows growers to compare their performance at both local and national levels, as well as providing policy makers with sound information to use in setting realistic efficiency targets.

This report details the results of a pilot study conducted between July 2004 to September 2005, to benchmark water use in vegetable crops grown in two contrasting areas of Victoria:- peri-urban Melbourne (Cranbourne, Mornington Peninsula and Werribee) and the Mallee (Mildura and Swan Hill).

Author : Bill Ashcroft

Benchmarking Vegetable Industry Water Use
Download 146kb

Key Findings :

  • Most participants used fixed sprinkler irrigation. Crops included lettuce, broccoli and carrots near Melbourne, and carrots, pumpkins, squash and zucchinis in the Mallee.

  • Average marketable yields reported by growers ranged from 13.3 t/ha for broccoli to 50.8 t/ha for carrots around Melbourne, and from 8.1 t/ha for squash to 43.2 t/ha for carrots in the Mallee.

  • Average water use reported for the target crops ranged from 1.2 (in broccoli) to 3.3 ML/ha (in carrots) around Melbourne, and from 1.7 (in squash) to 3.1 ML/ha (in zucchini) in the Mallee.

  • Average crop water use efficiencies (measured as t/ML) varied from 9.2 (for broccoli) to 28.4 (for lettuce) around Melbourne, and from 2.3 (for pumpkin) to 24.5 (for carrots) in the Mallee.

  • The comparative results were of interest, but their accuracy and value were rightly questioned given the limited sample and obvious differences in cropping circumstances.

Vegetable production is intensive, often requiring large inputs of water and nutrients.
This study provides useful insights into some of the issues facing farmers
in the irrigation of vegetable crops across Victoria.

Key Findings (cont):

  • The application of water for environmental control - to germinate weeds, control wind-blown dust and sand, and to protect and maintain moisture under young seedlings. - arose as a significant consideration in some areas.
  • Over-watering also occurred when the output of a pump was too great for one block, necessitating the irrigation of other areas, whether they needed it or not. With an abundant supply of water, these issues have not been of concern to growers in the past.

  • Most growers were unaware of how much water per hectare they were applying. Water use efficiency was not seen as a high priority for many of these growers, but most saw it as becoming more important to them.

  • Most participants saw value in the information and were willing to take part in future benchmarking activities.

SEE ALSO :

VG08020  Optimising water & nutrient use  (2010)

VG04010  Maximising returns from water - Victoria  (2007)

Acknowledgements :

This project has been facilitated by the Victorian State Government and Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) in partnership with AUSVEG through the National Vegetable Research and Development Levy.

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.


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