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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
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Summer Root Rot in Parsley
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Vegetable Diseases in Australia
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VG00013 Leek Diseases
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VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
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VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
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VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
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VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
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VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
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VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
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VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
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VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
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VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
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VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
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VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
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VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
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VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
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VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
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VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
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VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
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VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
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Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
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VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
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VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol

In Tasmania, Sclerotinia diseases caused by S. sclerotiorum and S. minor have become widespread in the north-west and southern regions, where they affect many crops, such as beans, brassicas, carrots, lettuces, peas, potatoes and pyrethrum.

Sclerotinia produces sclerotia that can survive in soil over a long period of time. As a result, with intensive cropping, Sclerotinia inoculum in the soil can increase to such a high level that fungicide spray programs alone may not give adequate control of the disease in highly susceptible horticultural crops.

This project takes a new approach to examining and developing a long term Sclerotinia disease management strategy. The aims of the studies conducted in Tasmania were to evaluate and develop both short and long-term management strategies that are suitable for Sclerotinia control in horticultural crops.

Long-term strategies that were investigated included the evaluation of promising biological methods, such as commercial biocontrol agents, green manures and break crops.

The short-term strategies examined were pre-plant and post-plant chemical control methods to determine if there are other products that could be used in combination or in alternation with the current fungicide program.

The key research findings from trials conducted in Tasmania are detailed in this report.

Authors :

Hoong Pung

Susan Cross

VG04059 Developing on-farm diagnostic kits for brassica diseases - 2007
Download 199kb

Summary :

As lettuce is the most susceptible crop to Sclerotinia wilt, almost all trials in Tasmania were conducted with lettuce as the benchmark crop.

Although Sclerotinia sclerotiorum can also cause Sclerotinia wilt, S. minor is the most common cause of lettuce wilt.

The areas of study examined in the Tasmanian trials were:

  • effectiveness of bacteria and fungal biocontrol agents, used in pre- and post-plant treatments, for use in wilt disease management.

  • effectiveness of alternative chemical soil treatments, used in pre-plant treatments, for use in wilt disease management.

  • methods for improving Sclerotinia control on crops in the field after planting, with the use of new fungicides and fungicide mixtures containing materials that enhance plant defence systems.

  • effectiveness of a range of green manure crops, including brassica green manures, for use in high Sclerotinia pressure areas, for long-term disease management. .

Fungicide control

  • Field trials conducted in Tasmania showed that the fungicide procymidone (sold as Sumisclex and Fortress) gave consistent and effective control of Sclerotinia disease caused by S. minor and S. sclerotiorum, under high disease pressure.

  • Boscalid (BAS510-01F), a new class of fungicide, was shown to be highly effective against S. sclerotiorum and S. minor on bean, lettuce and pyrethrum crops in Tasmania.

  • Effective fungicide application methods are essential for good disease control, with appropriate spray volume and timing in different types of horticultural crops.

Reducing plant susceptibility

  • Agri-Fos (phosphorus acid) and MicroGyp (natural gypsum or calcium sulphate), consistently improved disease control when applied in combination with Sumisclex further reduce the percentage of diseased plants by 1% to 5%, when compared to Sumisclex alone.

  • Plants have their own mechanisms for preventing fungal invasion, and an unhealthy crop with nutrient deficiencies is usually more susceptible to disease than a healthy crop.

Biocontrol agents

  • Contans, based on C. minitans biocontrol fungus, was identified as the most promising potential biocontrol agent for Sclerotinia.

  • Under low disease pressure, Contans could provide early disease control when applied as a pre-plant soil treatment or post-plant spray applications.

  • With many biocontrol agents, including Contans, their efficacy for prolonged Sclerotinia control appeared to be limited.

    They appeared to be less effective under high disease pressure, and against actively growing Sclerotinia pathogens under favourable wet conditions, at the late crop stage.

  • Under high disease pressure, fungicide applications following early biocontrol agent treatments are still recommended.

Brassica green manures

  • This study indicated that brassica green manure plants that produce high plant biomass and high concentrations of biofumigants may offer advantages over non-brassica green manure plants for Sclerotinia disease control.

  • BQ-Mulch, which produces high levels of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in roots, was found to be more effective for Sclerotinia control than Fumus, which produces high levels of ITCs in its foliage.

  • The fumigating activities of green manures are likely to diminish rapidly and their effects for disease suppression are expected to be relatively short term.

  • Under conditions that are ideal for the Sclerotinia disease, fungicide control methods should also be used, in conjunction with brassica green manures, for disease management.

  • This study showed that the high plant biomass and deep tap root systems of brassica green manures, helped reduce soil crusting, improved infiltration, increased organic matter and reduced sub-soil compaction.

  • These overall soil improvement effects are likely to increase soil fertility and improve soil structural properties, thereby contributing to improved crop health and disease control.

Soil amendments with mustard meal, PERLKA and urea

  • A preliminary laboratory test conducted in this study showed that cold pressed mustard meal, urea and PERLKA were highly effective in killing sclerotia of S. minor when applied at very high rates.

  • These products are unlikely to replace post-plant fungicide applications but could be considered for use as an additional tool for an integrated disease management practice.

Detection

  • Sclerotinia may cause seedling damping-off, and the susceptibility of seedlings appeared to be closely associated with plant architecture.

  • Plant architecture could therefore be a useful guide when selecting plant varieties for use in crop rotations, particularly in ground that has high Sclerotinia pressure.

  • Selection of paddocks that enable good air flow and rapid drying of crops, in order to minimize risk to Sclerotinia disease, are critical. Effective disease control can be difficult to achieve in the presence of field conditions that are highly conducive to the pathogen.

Acknowledgements :

This study was conducted as part of project VG00048, led by Dr. Ian Porter of Primary Industries Research Victoria.

We would like to thank the Tasmanian growers, Mr. David Bovill, Mr. Richard Bovill, Mr. Colin Houston, Mr. Dennis Davis, and Mr. Jeremy Rockcliff, for providing trial sites, as well as their field staff for their assistance in planting and overall maintenance of the trial areas.

We are grateful to Mr. John Hill of Hills Transplant Pty Ltd, for his assistance in transplant treatments at the plant nursery.

Field trials at Cambridge and Margate in southern Tasmania were conducted with the assistance of Mr. Dennis Patten and Dr. Lee Peterson, Serve-Ag staff based in Hobart.

Other Serve-Ag staff, who also assisted in this project, are Peter Aird and Sarah Lamprey.

Mark Shakelton at CSIRO Entomology, Perth, conducted plant analysis for isothiocyanates in brassica green manure tissues.

The authors are grateful for the funding support provided by Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) in partnership with AUSVEG through the National Vegetable Research and Development Levy.

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL�s R&D activities.


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